Social Stratification In United States


Social stratification:

When we speak of social stratification we mean inequality between various groups of people. Inequality exists in all sorts of societies and cultures. Societies are consisted of layers that are hierarchical.

The four basic stratification systems are:

1) slavery

2) caste

3) estate

4) class.

Stratification systems of slavery, caste and estate have been demolished in modern societies except some tribal societies.

The social class system is mainly a description of how scarce resources (wealth, income, education and occupation) are distributed in society. In other words Class could be explained as an indication of the positions a person may occupy within society, positions which are not equal.Thus, in order to analysis social classes in a society, it is necessary to explain that how these resources are distributed and make social classes.

In spite of the fact that some scholars argue that in developed countries, inequality has reduced rather than previous societies but, social stratification, inequality and class conflict have increasing rate today. In the United States Inequality between rich and poor has increased to the extent that the gap among them is larger than any point in the past 75 years. United States has the largest wealth disparity of any industrialized nation in the world and this disparity is growing larger every year.

In the United States, income is obviously one important scarce resource. Clearly, it is occupation that provides income, and it is education that determines the sort of occupation. At the more extent level, income is related to life consequences, such as the quality and quantity of education, health care, and housing one obtains, and even the how long one lives. So, there is interrelationship between accesses to each of these sources.

in the United States individual income depends on educational characteristics; in 2005 most people with doctorate and professional degrees were in top 15% of income earners. Those with Bachelor degrees had incomes considerably above the national median and people with college degree had less income.

The noticeable point is that, while the population of the United States is becoming increasingly educated on all levels, the conspicuous link between income and educational attainment remains.

Another point is that tertiary education is rarely free; education in elite private colleges for a four year program costs $120,000 approximately. While public colleges and universities costs much less but they are not free. Scholarships and low interest loans by government and universities are available too, but still the cost of education is high for many people.

Overall, educational attainment serves as one of the most essential class feature of most Americans, which is directly linked to income and occupation.

On one hand occupational status is consequence of educational attainment, personal or family income and on the other hand it defines access to other resources including income and health.

Low-wage jobs are associated with those people who have less education. Workers in these areas are unskilled because it does not require education in order to perform these jobs. But, White collar jobs require more human capital, skill and knowledge and therefore produce higher earnings. With higher education it is more likely for one to occupy a professional-level job wherein he or she may earn a higher salary. Therefore, those with less education are more likely to be working in Low-wage jobs.

Each particular job influences on lifestyle; income and prestige that gained from a job determine living environment, the kind of foods, medical care, sort of social networks, entertainment, spare times, and behavior.

It is education that makes upper-middle, middle and lower-middle scores on occupational spectrum; unskilled employees, employees with less than seven years of schooling, high school graduated ones, college graduate, licentiate, MS holders, professionals and experts with Doctorate degree located on different scores of occupational spectrum. So while all functions and positions in society do not determine with occupation, the job role is one of the most important status features in the United States.

Another feature that determines individuals’ position in the society is wealth. Wealth is what people own in assets such as houses, cars, stocks, shares, saved money, and lands.

While United States is the second rich county in the world, the distribution of wealth is too unfair. The top 1% of all population owned 38% of the wealth, 10% of population had 71% of wealth and on the other hand the bottom 40% owned less than 1% of the nation’s wealth.

Totally, the distribution of wealth is much more unequal than the distribution of income (what people receive in the course of a year by working).

According to these basic elements (income, wealth, occupation and education) which determine the social class of individuals and households, Americans believe in three- class model that includes the rich, the middle class and the poor, while, in reality American society is more diverse, economically and sociologically. It means that there is no clear class distinction between socio-economic strata.

Social mobility:

The most important concept in a class system of stratification is social mobility. In class system, social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement; personal merit becomes more important. In fact, Industrial societies move towards meritocracy and in this kind of societies status consistency is lower than in other sorts of societies. Since societies became more competitive and more meritocratic some elements such as energy, social skills, character, ambition, physical attractiveness, talent, and luck played great role in social mobility and changing social position.

Now the question is that “How much mobility Americans have experienced during their life?”

Social mobility refers to changes in social position which occur during a person’s lifetime. There are two ways to study social mobility; Intragenerational Mobility and Intergenerational mobility.

By the first concept, we mean upward and downward movement in social ladder and by second one we refer to upward and downward movement in social hierarchy compared with the previous generation.

In order to explaining occupational mobility, mostly, scholars focus on father-child or household head-child occupational persistence (Intergenerational mobility).

If we distinguished six general occupational categories including upper professional or manager, lower professional or clerical, self-employed, technical or skilled trade, farm, unskilled and service workers, in united states, among men whom born after 1950, 32 percent of men were immobile (their occupation was in the same category as their father’s), 37 percent were upwardly mobile, and 32 percent were downwardly mobile. About women, data show that 27 percent were immobile, 46 percent were upwardly mobile, and 28 percent were downwardly mobile. Then, in occupation upward mobility was more common than downward mobility and Comparisons with other industrialized countries occupational mobility in the United States is reasonably high.

According to studies, intergenerational elasticity (IGE) in income between fathers and sons was estimated 0.4 or higher. Totally, actual association between parents’ and children’s incomes is high.

Wealth mobility is totally different from occupational and income mobility; at first, wealth is important because its distribution is more unequal than the distribution of income and on the other hand it effects on other aspects of family well-being, especially homeownership and investment in children’s education. Also, there is substantial intergenerational persistence in family wealth and the correlation is in the neighborhood of 0.50. The disparity in wealth persists between the generations. Thus, people who have no wealth loose opportunities. As an example, inherited wealth can put families in better neighborhoods and school districts than they could afford if they had to rely just on their incomes.

Social class in the United States is affected by individual achievement, as I said, Occupation, educational attainment and income can be earned and increased through a lifetime, but still it is undeniable that the rich have more money, more education, better occupation, better health, and consume more.

As a conclusion we should say that without the concept of social stratification, it is impossible to understand people’s behavior, because social class determines all aspects of our life…., our happiness, our religious beliefs, our customs, our interests and hobbies our health and even how long we will live and totally our life style.


Source by Sara Sajjadi

P90X Sucks – This group had a bad P90X Results


The first time I did P90X, a group of people wanted me to do. I’ll tell you right now that not everyone was successful with it. Some were successful and there is a lot healthier, stronger, fitter and lost a few pounds. However, other low and was not received results show when the program is ended. At the end it seemed to be a split. One side believed that the program was awesome, the other side said: “P90X shit!”.

What was the defining difference between the group that was unsuccessful, and the two that succeeded? There was more. The first difference was that the group’s success was not complaining much. They complained of a healthy diet, but anxious about the workouts, but whined when an exercise made them uncomfortable. Let me tell you now, P90X exercise and generally uncomfortable! They were negative for the whole program in general. They started with excitement, but when things are tough (as only the first training session started), it was like trying to talk themselves doing a program of sabotage and transform the body and changing lives for the better.

there is a reason to put your eating plan books in the program! Many people ask, “Do you have to follow the P90X Nutrition Plan?” The answer is yes! If you are serious about getting results, you need to eat healthier! The group, which did not did not follow the nutrition plan. It rationalizes that the bacon, biscuits, sugar-loaded cereals, white bread, ice cream, and other trash is often eaten is not removed. These people honestly thought that because they were “home cooked food”, eating healthy. Granted, any outsider would soon realize, after seeing that “home cooked” bacon, chicken, mayonnaise sandwiches, their minds that these people thinking about what they could to “healthy home cooking!”

Fail to do the workouts and you will not see change! The group, which is not done Yoga X. They never made it through a single X Yoga workout. This particular exercise an hour and a half long, and decided not to go because “too hard and too long.” It was also decided to not follow any set time to workout. They put off the exercise until late at night when he utter aloud. “I’m too tired to do a workout” I missed a lot of training, and on average only do 2-3 workouts a week, which pretty much meant that no fewer than half of the program.

If you want to do, what was the above-mentioned group, because none of them got nothing out of it. He complained was negative and constantly tries to sabotage his own attempt to transform your body and your life. They continue to eat unhealthy, and almost less than half of the training program. In the end, it was thought sucked P90X, when in reality, the failure was 100% his fault.


Source by Marcus Liberty

Dental Braces and orthodontic treatment for children


Most children, orthodontic treatment begins when high school students ages 11 15. Some children received corrective procedures done before. As long as the child’s baby teeth are gone, there is little that can be done to manipulate the permanent adult teeth. Baby teeth extraction often need to free up space allowing room for permanent teeth to grow. Most dentist will refer you to an orthodontist to get a second opinion on the child’s specific needs.

Most of the time, children under one year, 11, found the visit to confirm that all is well on track. Typically, the orthodontist will see them again in a year or two. These orthodontic visits are almost always free of charge. In a subsequent visit, when permanent teeth are fully developed, the orthodontist will be able to make a recommendation.

Orthodontic Care Secondary School
Middle school and high school is no longer a relaxing time have to decide for teens before career. Just imagine that you do not have any choice in the future, such as 13 or 14 years old and on top of that is self-confident smile. Years ago, if you were a teen crooked teeth metal braces were the only option, and the sight of such assets in the mouth can lead to stressful situations.

Clean technology brace gradually straighten the teeth, although the use of a series of gradually changing the progression or plastic molds, which softly teeth perfect smile. Now prepare while straightening your teeth into adulthood, and no one will be wiser new smile.

Clear plastic braces other advantages of metal braces that better hygiene and dental health. Because the aligners can be removed before eating, brushing and flossing your teeth and gums will be able to properly cleaned every night making healthier smile. And for those teenage trouble keeping up with things, some neat brand braces for you free replacement aligners.

So whether you choose traditional metal braces or clear plastic, you can be assured that the decision to improve your smile will add years old healthy life in the teeth and gums. Straight teeth healthy teeth. Keep them straight, wide, white.

See professional teeth in order that the most complete information to the orthodontic treatment. Be the first, second or even a third opinion most of the controller will just have to make sure your information.


Source by David Lavine

Without increases the size of the Special Forces Lean Body


Can you get more and more powerful? In my experience a lot of people think that you have to spend hours in the gym doing burnout claims to have failed in order to become stronger. Although this work is to create a physique in a short period of time, the platform is very fast, and I think that they are unable to have any athletic activity at a high level. This is something that I see a lot of people messing with the gym. I repeatedly hear the young guys are talking about, that they’ve hit a plateau in the lifts and they decide to try to simply increase the number of sets / reps, the total amount, or just doing the same old thing, in the hope that it will magically get stronger . This is a huge mistake, especially if your goal is to have a lean physique average size, but extreme muscle density.

Decrease in inventories and repetitions to increase strength and muscle tone The really strong, you need to lift the heaviest weights you can manage your perfect shape, very few reps. We recommend 3-5 reps. 1-3 reps of clean power, five reps a little muscle as well. A good rule of thumb is to get out in the gym feeling stronger than when he came. If you feel tired or hurt you too much. I like to keep the number of packages in total over 14 years. Keep rest between sets to be about 1-2 minutes. I know it sounds stupid, but believe me, it will bust the existing platform to build strength and keep like this. This is a fantastic way to not force the size of a Special Forces lean body.

Why more is not always better Most people think that simply doing more work = better results, and I definitely stuck in this category, whereas a few years ago. Basically, increasing the number of packages, or just trying to do more work will mean that you will build strength, stamina and muscle mass, but you’re pure strength gains quickly stagnate. Remember those muscle bound figures in high school and college, “inflata-lat” and ridiculous cut-off T-shirts, who seemed to survive on a diet of protein shakes and chicken (I think than half the cast of “Jersey Shore” lol)? This look is created, high-volume lift and it just does not work or attractive. If you combine this lifting method is a high-carbohydrate, high-calorie diet and you’re just asking for a bloated and swollen. It is not that the beauty raise and train the function. The sleek body and dense Special ops will also follow.

train as a Recon Marine, to a Hollywood body This is a very popular method of raising military units should be ready to go in an instant. They can not afford to be tired or hurt lifting a two-hour session, but they still need to be incredibly strong and conditioned. Recon Marines and two Navy Seals Special Forces units, which is a great example of the type and level of physical fitness training this product. They usually have an average size, but great for muscle tone and strength-to-weight ratio. I have been training like this for about three years and has almost doubled my strength level. It used to trouble lifting dumbbells £ 50 an armed row, and now has hundreds of easy to pull every lever weighing 160lbs. When I start to train military guys, the first thing we do limit the time in the gym as much as possible. After a few weeks you will feel like a badass lift heavier weights than half of the people around you, and then go off while everyone else is still slogging burnout sets.

All the best, Charles Malina


Source by Charles Malina

10 elements of organic gardening


Organic gardening is much more, just avoiding the use of chemicals in the garden. For many people it is an outlook on living through the laws of nature to grow fruits, vegetables and other natural plants. This light is usually a personal choice for many research on the importance of diet as it relates to health and longevity.

The studies have shown that organic food is higher concentration of vitamins and minerals, and they are grown chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and. Organically grown fruits and vegetables are not only better health wise, but they also avoid accidental exposure to these chemicals that are used in large-scale commercial farming, which is so common in the world today.

Here are 10 key components is an essential part of organic gardening.

1. Healthy Soil – This is perhaps the most fundamental aspect of any organic garden. A healthy soil that replenished naturally healthy foods will increase year by year. Organic fertilizers such as manure and composted garden, yard and kitchen waste can be easily recycled to create nutrient-rich soil of the earth to grow healthy plants every way.

2. Avoid any chemical or synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and. It is not just that the soil organic remains, of course, but also relieve the worries harm to your family and your pets should come in contact with these dangerous chemicals.

3. Sustainable gardening practices allow the garden to be self-sustaining. Since these plants are used by the exchange of nutrients through the use of natural fertilizers and compost. Organic gardens organic rightly rely on the natural cycles each year to stay healthy.

4. Management of the environment – the benefits of the natural environment organic gardening practices that will reduce the environmental pollution associated with chemical-dependent farming practices.

5. Creating a welcoming habitat for beneficial wildlife. There are many useful animals, insects, should be drawn to the garden. It protects them not only beneficial to them, but the gardening efforts of the dangers associated with hazardous chemicals because they eat large amounts of harmful insects, controlling them in a natural way.

6. Use the preservation installation practices intensive water use and helps retard the growth of unwanted weeds. Intensive planting a simple division of the plants close together. This helps protect the soil from evaporation and weed germination is slower days.

7. The concept of plant biodiversity is used to ensure that changes in growing conditions or plant disease does not lead to crop failure. Planting a variety of plants will ensure that the loss of a plant does not threaten the entire garden food supply.

8. Rotate plants – control soil pests and diseases, the primary reason is to rotate crops every year during the growing season. Crop rotation can maintain a healthy and productive garden every bountiful harvest.

9. Use a good watering and weeding practices. Capture and store rain water, where possible, to water the garden. Use soaker hoses, drip irrigation, water or manually minimize water loss. Hand weed and avoid harmful pesticides and herbicides. And be sure to specify a thick mulch to hold in moisture and keep weeds germinating.

10. Save seeds from the best plants for future use. Imagine being able to create a self-sustaining garden that does not require outside help. Planting of spring to autumn harvest organic garden is truly a part of the natural environment.


Source by Andrew Bicknell

Penis Sensitivity and Nerve Health – How acetyl L carnitine can improve penis Sensation


reported that the University of Maryland Medical Center, acetyl L carnitine, or ALCAR, is an important amino acid, a wide range of health benefits that positively affect your sexual performance and sexual enjoyment and overall penile health. Men who experience reduced sensitivity, as well as issues related to penis aware of a number of other health benefits of the penis must be ALCAR and how it affects the long-term ability to enjoy sexual activity.

What acetyl L-carnitine?

acetyl L carnitine is an amino acid – the chain molecules which acts as a component of proteins, which play several roles in the body. The main task of the ALCAR goal that fat is the fuel that the body can use to carry out metabolic functions. While acetyl L carnitine is made in the body in small amounts, and it is possible to eat certain foods, many people do not have optimal levels of this important substance in their bodies and may not be able to absorb it efficiently foods or dietary supplements.

Additional features of acetyl L carnitine

In addition to the role of metabolic function, ALCAR a well known antioxidant, a molecule which binds to the free radicals (harmful molecules to the environment), and neutralizes them, preventing them from causing long-term damage to the cells. from chronic L-carnitine has been used for the treatment of acetyl health conditions of heart disease in diabetic neuropathy (in which the nerve tissue throughout the body is destroyed with high sugar in the blood) that Alzheimer’s disease to infertility.

penis health benefits of acetyl-L carnitine

When the penis, ALCAR has many advantages that can not be ignored as part of his health regimen.

• nerve cell repair – Acetyl L-Carnitine provide important support to the nervous system and help the injured nerve tissue and form new nerve cells. Since the surface of the fine mesh nerve endings under the skin of the penis constant friction, often destroyed can be replaced more quickly, resulting in loss of feeling to the penis; acetyl L-carnitine is required in the damaged tissue and promote the ability to experience sexual pleasure.

• Peyronie’s disease – This debilitating condition occurs when scar tissue under the skin of the penis causes the member to bend or curve the erection and sexual activity often painful, or impossible. The researchers found that the acetyl L-carnitine may be more effective than the standard drugs – tamoxifen – which is normally used to treat the disease.

• Enhanced erectile function – Several studies have shown that ALCAR promote erectile function and reduce impotence certain people. In addition, men who used a longer erections and more satisfying orgasms ALCAR report.

• Visualization and relaxation – ALCAR is believed to affect neurotransmitters in the brain, increasing relaxation and visualization; which are important factors for the pleasure of masturbation and sex.

• Protection of environmental damage – the antioxidant properties of acetyl L carnitine protects the penis environmental occupiers, thereby slowing the aging process and helps to serious diseases of the body, such as cancer, it is often the cell damage.

How acetyl-L carnitine can be used to promote sexual health?

as mentioned earlier, dietary supplements are not always enough to make the penis sufficient amount of acetyl-L carnitine as ingested supplements are not always absorbed through the digestive system properly. Using a special penis health formula (most health professionals recommend man1 Man Oil), which, can be provided directly on the penis skin, it is of vital nutrients directly to the skin cells of the penis to maximize their profit.


Source by John Dugan

Finding the best places for healthy foods


Eating right is an important part of the lifestyle that encourages the general benefits. It can help you to look and feel your best. You can make your body the necessary energy and helps your body weight. It also reduces the serious health problems such as diabetes and heart disease. That positive changes can start with an action plan, and health food stores.


Eating right does not mean that it is limited to only a few foods, you’ll quickly got bored. This does not mean that there can be any of the items you like – but you must consume them in moderation. Select important to gain from health food stores. This allows you to try new foods, new culinary ideas and to avoid feeling restricted.

Most health food stores strive to provide a lot of great products every time. Some of the items they offer, such as fresh fruits and vegetables may rotate due to the season. Some of them are grown all year round and others only at certain times of the year this year. We have access to what they need to do better than before.

Look for a provider offering healthy food brand, it has a great reputation. The best results prepare the food in a raw state. However, this is not always practical or possible. There are times when you need to packaged foods, but it is still a healthy choice. Take the time to read labels and find out what the ingredients before you buy.

Eating healthy does not mean that food taste or not taste good. Instead, you should be excited about what you are going to consume. Select foods that are full of good nutrients, but pleasant taste buds. Be creative, try new foods that we like and find recipe books that will give you some good ideas.


One of the reasons people do not eat well, they was in a hurry. There are fast food joints everywhere you turn, where you can get greasy fries and burgers. Fortunately, there are many health food stores than before. Thanks to consumers’ demand for them, however, is becoming more common. Find them conveniently close to where you live and work.

If you travel frequently for work or pleasure, you use your smart phone or computer to find out where to be found in health food stores. Stocking up on food in a place like this, not the dinner to save money. This will also help you to stay on track eating habits and goals. Find a hotel with a kitchenette, a fridge if you want to prepare some meals.


Not all health food stores charge you a fortune to eat better. In fact, many people are trying to keep prices affordable, so you can budget for them. Comparison shop, so you get an idea of ​​the prices, and if you find the best deals. It can also save money by planning meals based on what season or what is on sale at that time.

You can not put a price tag though you feel better physically and mentally. Foods, reducing fat intake and thus reduce the unhealthy carbohydrates consumed are added together. It’s hard to be the first to make these changes, but planned meals, snacks planning and staying focused will help to make it a lifestyle change and continuous habit.


Source by Nick Shutts

Why Take a Fitness App?


Health and fitness has become the new religion, as more people a better life, free of the expensive and sometimes painful health problems. The sooner you can start to look for better health will live a better life. But when it comes to health and fitness, it’s never too late to start the changes. The easiest change to a better life style can be all you need to see a difference in your health.

Because the demand for better health, mobile applications have been developed related to fitness. Gone are the days when you need to the gym to get yourself a rewarding workout. A personal trainer guides you through the necessary process, but it means that you can go wherever the trainer. But fitness apps available, you can enjoy time and place of comfort, and still the greatest results in the time spent in the fitness classes. There are several reasons why you should consider getting a fitness app.

The freedom to choose the best application for you

App developers embrace all areas of fitness apps, and offer a variety of clothing, needs of users. When looking at the apps, you will realize that you can go to a tracking application activity, diet and nutrition, and exercise training application or approx. To make the most of your efforts, you can choose the individual applications, so are able to combine a healthy diet healthy exercise for optimal results in health and fitness efforts.

You will get a personal trainer wherever you are

Mobile apps allow you to a personal trainer when and where is not an extra cost. This means that the freedom to train at any given time and place, as long as the necessary application on the mobile device. There is enough flexibility in it and it can not be compared for you to go to the gym to achieve health and fitness center is useful insights and guidance of a personal trainer.

You can enjoy some freedom to fitness app

People are different. While some do not mind training a group of people feel a little more comfortable training alone. Because it can be difficult to get a personal trainer all to yourself, especially as the rate goes, you’ll love that an application can do for you. The fitness app allows you the freedom to practice as you like and a place of comfort. So you can give all the best seats, so you can reach your fitness goals faster.

Using the application is simple

This is because it is designed for beginners before. The application not only step by step guides to diet and exercise, but also comes with features that make it easy for all users to use and get the most from them. You do not have to worry that you are just starting, because the application has everything you need to start off.


Source by Satvik Mittal

The Top 5 Harmful Substances Found in Your Food


If you need to enhance the flavour of food using artificial chemicals rather than herbs and spices, there is something seriously wrong about that and it begs to wonder why you would want to put such things into their bodies.

Of course, there are more than five harmful substances that are found in foods but I wanted to concentrate on these five because they are the most common.

In no particular order, my top five are:


Out of all the substances, for me personally, this must be the worse. This is not to say that some (additives)) are better than others, but there really is no need for this in food, there really isn’t.

The process of hydrogenation is to heat up liquid oil to high temperatures so it becomes a solid fat. Manufacturers claim this enhances the taste and ‘mouth feel’ of the foods they produce as well as extend shelf life. This very process changes the chemical structure of the oil and turns it into a ‘trans fat’.

I recall reading a newspaper article a while back where a university professor said that there are no health benefits to hydrogenated oils. In fact, he could not even measure how dangerous they would be to the human body so we are better off avoiding them all together.

Indeed, hydrogenated oils have no health benefits whatsoever. It is no better than eating plastic. Your body cannot process plastic so how it is supposed to process hybridized oil is anyone’s guess.

A few years ago, one high street chain made the decision to omit hydrogenated oils from all their own brand label foods. I was very pleased when I heard this and I wish other supermarkets would follow suit.

The main foods to look out for are: burgers, pizzas, fast foods, powdered soup and sauce mixes, cakes, pastries, desserts, cookies, some breakfast cereals, crisps (chips), chips (fries), non-dairy alternatives (cream etc.) and many non organic processed ready meals.

Fast food joints that sell fried food are best avoided because you have no idea how often they change their oil. The more the oil is re-heated and re-used, the more oxidised it gets – basically, more and more free radicals are created. Free radicals is like rust in the body and if you do not consume anti-oxidants (found in fresh whole foods particularly fruits and vegetables) you could be setting yourself up for some serious health problems in the future.


What surprises me about white sugar is that it is found in foods you would not expect it to be in. I have lost count the amount of times I have been shopping, picked up a product, looked and the label only to find sugar as one of the ingredients.

A few years back, one of my favourite snacks was oatcakes. When out shopping, I wanted to buy my usual pack of oatcakes but they were out of stock, so I looked at the supermarkets own label alternative. I could not believe it when I saw sugar as the third (or forth) ingredient. I thought why? Why was it necessary to add sugar to a product when it clearly was not needed? Answer? It is a cheap bulking agent and adds to the taste (supposedly). This is why supermarkets can boast about their produce being cheaper – they add cheaper ingredients and less of the real stuff.

Most mornings, I see kids going to school gorging themselves on sweets (candy), chocolate, cans of fizzy pop, and packets of crisps. What happened to a decent breakfast? These kids must be a nightmare by the time they get to school.

Consuming high amounts of sugar in any form not only depletes minerals in the body (especially) calcium but also causes blood sugar problems. When too much sugar is consumed, calcium is extracted from the skeletal bones to buffer the acidic effects of too much sugar circulating in the blood. This can lead to thinning of the bones, thus leading to osteoporosis.

Blood sugar problems are not the same as diabetes, but if it is not regulated, this is exactly what it can lead to. Constant blood sugar disruptions can cause a number of symptoms including sleepiness, lethargy, tiredness and cravings for sugary products.

White refined sugar can be found in just about every processed food you can think of, even in savoury products such as tinned (and/ or fresh) soups, processed sausages and pies, pizzas, burgers, bread and slimming products! Now you know why you have trouble managing your weight.

Now the market is crowed with decent alternatives such as agave and yacon, you can still get your sweet fix minus the side effects. You can also use fresh and dried fruit as sweeteners for making desserts and in baking.


One thing I will never understand is why manufactures spend money stripping all the nutrients away from whole grains, turning it into a pure white substance with no nutrients then fortifying their foods with inorganic vitamins and minerals. It’s baffling!

White flour, like white sugar is found in a countless array of foods – again all processed. I’ve lost count of the number of times clients have come to me and say they are trying to cut out wheat because they are having a hard time digesting it. This really does not surprise me considering it is found in just about everything you can think of, even salads, salad dressings and roast potatoes!

White wheat flour has become a staple in the Western world and people will consume it several times per day without even realising. They may think they have a varied diet but if you break it down into a list of ingredients, the main items on the list will be white flour, white sugar, fat and salt.

Like white sugar, white flour will deplete our body of nutrients. Why? Because it contains no nutrients your body then has to draw on its own reserves and if those reserves are in short supply, you are heading for trouble.

Your body need nutrients to function at an optimal level. If these nutrients are not there that is when we start having health problems. Over time these (health problems) become more chronic especially if we continue to eat the same suboptimal foods. You wouldn’t put diesel in your car if it takes unleaded petrol would you? Of course not! Your car would splutter to a halt in a very short period of time. But that is what you are doing to your body when you consume white flour products. The only difference is that your body will start showing signs of ill health.

Another thing you will notice about white flour is how sticky it is. Now just imagine that sticking to your insides, because that is what happens. Gluten is the substance responsible for this and the first three letters says it all – GLU add an E and we have glue!

Just imagine, for breakfast you kick start the day with toasted glue, add a good spread of hydrogenated fat and perhaps some sugar (jam)…hummm, nice! That will keep you fighting fit and performing at your peak won’t it?

There are plenty of alternatives out there so there it is possible to avoid foods that contain white refined flour. The best whole grains to go for are those that are stoned ground e.g. wholemeal, spelt, rye and kamut. Further, you can replace whole grains with non gluten alternatives such as millet, coconut, potato, rice and hemp flour. With whole grains, the nutrients stay intact. Alternatively, you can sprout most of these grains and eat them as they are or homogenise them, mix with herbs and spices and turn them into delicious nutrient dense crackers.


I have never been a big fan of fizzy drinks. My mum never bought any home when she went shopping so this translated over to me when I moved away and started doing my own shopping. Before I knew any better, the only time I consumed fizzy drinks was when I went out for a meal (I didn’t drink alcohol much) or some other special occasion, so it was no big deal to stop drinking it all together when I started studying nutrition.

Fizzy drinks are not only high in sugar (everyone knows that) but they are also high in phosphorus. Phosphorus is a substance that is very good at leaching calcium from bones because calcium is required to maintain the blood pH homeostasis. Phosphorus is also highly acidic and upsets the balance with potassium. This along with a high intake of dairy is what probably contributes to the highest levels of osteoporosis in the Western World.

Fizzy drinks again are empty calories. They contribute nothing to your health except extra calories. No wonder the rates of childhood obesity are reaching epidemic levels. Further, more and more children are being diagnosed with type two diabetes. Up until a few years ago, this was an adult onset health issue – not any more.


Let’s make this really simple – the word artificial says it all. If it isn’t natural, why put it in your body?

A 1970s study showed that aspartame caused brain tumours in rats and life long consumption increases the risk of cancer. Aspartame has also been shown as having a direct effect on brain chemistry. It can pass through the blood brain barrier and cause all sort of problems and has even been linked to food cravings. So if you are on a diet and consume ‘low fat’ foods that contain aspartame but you have cravings all the time, this perhaps could be the reason why.

Food colourings, emulsifiers, flavourings, thickeners and preservatives – what benefit do any of these have to your health? The only reason so many foods contain these unnecessary chemicals is for preservation, to extend shelf life and enhance taste but this can be easily done with herbs and spices. Most people ignore what they cannot understand and buy it anyway. Also, many may not question the extra additives in the food they buy because either they are unaware or if they are aware, they don’t care. If someone doesn’t care, it tells me they don’t think much of themselves…they don’t think they are worth it and that’s a shame.

If a substance is not from the earth, then it is man made and if it is man made, then it has no place in the food we eat.

The upshot of all this is that these substances do not contribute anything to your health because they are devoid of nutrients.

I am hoping for a world that eventually rejects what food manufacturers are producing and go back to how we used to live many years ago – producing our own food and relying on each other for support and resources.

When this will happen (if ever) is anyone’s guess, but I would like to think it will one day.


Source by Valerie McKen

Diabetic Foot Ulcers And Essential Oils


Often and unfortunately, ulcers on the feet become a common result of diabetes. Once an open wound is present on the foot, it also becomes prone to complications that may rise from infection.

Prevention of infection may be achieved through the use of anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral essential oils like Tea Tree oil. Tea Tree oil is also a commonly recommended essential oil that has historically assisted with the recovery of foot ulcers for several reasons.

First, Tea Tree oil has an unusually high concentration of terpinen-4-ol, an alcohol, which constitutes up to 35% of the finest quality Tea Tree oils. Research indicates the Terpinen-4-ol, successfully helps the body achieve normal inflammation levels, as indicated in a November, 2003, Australian study. Inflammation naturally occurs any time the body responds to trauma within the body. Inflammation results in redness, swelling, increased body temperature and pain. Thus, reducing inflammation may result in a reduction of the discomforts associated with the ulcer. Additionally, Tea Tree oil is used on foot ulcers is, because Tea Tree oil contains a unique blend of constituents that cannot be found in this combination anywhere else in nature. In 1978, G. Swords and G. L. K. Hunter authored an article titled: ‘Composition of Australian Tea-Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)’ in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry (vol. 26, 1978, pp. 734-9). This article pointed out that Tea Tree contains viridiflorene, present at I %, B- terpineol (0.24%) 1-terpineol (trace amounts) and allyl hexanoate (trace amounts).

Second, Tea Tree oil has been reported to have strong antiseptic properties. An antiseptic is defined as an anti-microbial substance that is applied to living tissue or skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis (defined below), or putrefaction (defined below).

Sepsis is defined as a serious medical issue, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection, where by harmful bacteria enters the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream the entire body may be under attack. In severe cases organ failure and death may result. According to, “early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can greatly improve survival rates.” Unfortunately, “since November 21, 2001, it is estimated that 4,804,000 people have developed severe sepsis, and 1,377,000 are estimated to have died.”

A completely different issue that many people with foot ulcers sometimes face, is the strong, piercing, foul odor that can be produced by foot ulcers. Putrefaction describes this and is defined as the decomposition of animal proteins, speed up by bacteria that feeds on that protein, allowing flesh to rot or decompose, sometimes resulting in a putrid odor.

A small list of additional essential oils has also been noted to assist with ulcers:

Frankincense (Boswell carteri),

Rose (Rosa dmascena),

Clary Sage (Salvia Sclarea),

Lemon (Citrus limonum) and Bergamot (Citrus bergamia)

Two processes are suggested for the application of essential oils to an open wound. First, you may choose to put one or two drops of the essential oil directly onto a cotton ball or a cotton swab. Then simply dab the ulcer with the cotton ball. Second, you may choose to make a compress. A compress can either be hot or cold. Typically, a cold compress is used in the presence of a fever, acute pain or swelling. You may choose to alternate between a hot and cold compress until you are able to determine which one produces the best results. You may even find that a combination of a hot and cold compress used at alternating times, is the best option.

To make a compress, place 6 drops of essential oil into a small bowl of water. Then soak a piece of absorbent material in the mixture. The material can literally be anything the holds the liquid, such as a towel or washcloth. Do not remove the piece of material until it cannot hold one more drop of the liquid mixture. Then remove the material and twist it until the excess liquid is drained out of the material. This is done simply to prevent excessive spillage. After draining the extra liquid, the cloth may be applied to the open wound. The compress should remain on the wound for at least 2 hours. However, leaving the compress on the wound overnight, may be even more beneficial.

In summary, Tea Tree oil is a noted antiseptic and may work extremely well to reduce the microbial invaders that try to attack the body through the open soar of a foot ulcer. Tea Tree oil may establish a barrier so strong that it is able to keep bacterial and viral invaders out of the blood stream. This anti-microbial function of Tea Tree oil may also be the necessary component that results in a reduction or total elimination of the distracting odor that diabetic foot ulcers sometimes produce. In addition to these benefits, Tea Tree oil is also believed to possess qualities that may be able to assist the body with inflammation created by the body in reaction to the trauma of the ulcer. This benefits the body as the pain and the swelling associated with the inflammation is normalized or reduced.


Source by Tawne Bachus